- The word “salad” comes from the Latin word “sal” which means salt. This is so, because the main ingredient in the dressing was salt.
- Today, salads are served and eaten at any point during a meal and can be served cold or warm.
- Each culture has its philosophy as to why they serve salad in a particular time during the meal.
- Many of the chicken’s inedible parts do NOT go to waste. We eat them in a form of a chicken nugget or a crispy chicken steak. And we love it.
- Differences between Greek (non fat) yogurt and plain (non fat) yogurt.
- Modifying an unhealthy salad into a healthy one.
- Salad recipes and their nutritional value.
- It’s essential to love what we eat. If unhealthy and greasy – modify it and make it healthy.
Yes, that’s what I wrote. That is the name of this post. There are salads and there are salads.
The word “salad” comes from the Latin word “sal” which means salt. This is so, because the main ingredient in the dressing was salt. The word (in Latin) “salata” means salted things. The Romans and Greeks popularized the trend of cutting raw vegetables and putting salt, oil and vinegar on top.
If we go chronologically through history, we’ll find the word salad mentioned many times, and in different cultures’ histories. From medieval Spain to Renaissance Italy to the Victorian Era in the UK, and further more to the time of the World Wars and Post Cold War era (or postmodernity), the salad is part of people’s meals. As time went by, salads became more and more complicated, though simple salads are still present on people’s dining tables (or computer desks, or front – TV tables…).
Today, salads are served and eaten at any point during a meal and can be served cold or warm. They can be:
- Appetizers – these are smaller portion – salads that stimulate the appetite as the first course of the meal.
- Side salads – these accompany the main dish as a side dish.
- Main course salads – these are usually sizable and more nourishing salads.
- Dessert salads – these are sweet salads.
In different cultures salad is served in different times during the meal. In Italy and Germany, for example, it is served at the end of the meal. In France it is served before the meal, and in America (mostly) it is served with the main dish. Each culture has its philosophy as to why they serve salad in that particular time during the meal.
– If served before the main dish – the salad fills you up more and you eat less, or control how much you eat from the rest of the meal (unless the salad is super tasty appetizer that prepares you to eat more food – then you’re screwed).
– If served during the meal – the fat from the main course helps the absorption of the salad’s nutrients.
– If served at the end of the meal – it helps digestion and accentuates the taste of the wine (if you drink wine with your main meal).
These theories are still widely disputed and discussed.
But, why did I choose to talk about salads?
First – for people that have a very fast lifestyle, salads are a good idea to make at home and pack them to work, and it’s good for them to know, which ingredients in a salad, or which type of salad is the healthiest choice.
Second – I think folks are very confused as to what healthy food means these days. Many people think that, if they eat a bowl of salad, they’ve eaten less calories, because… It’s only salad, right? Right? Wrong! It’s not only salad. It’s salad, (probably pesticides, too – yummy!), salt, dressing, and maybe bread goes well with it, too. And if it’s white bread – all the better, right? Right?
Let’s take a look at an attractive salad, and then break it down to its most basic ingredients.
OK, so – quite obvious – not very healthy: crispy chicken, white dough croutons and yogurt (or mayo) topping. Beside these ingredients we see: rocket, tomato, some sweet corn, red onions and soya sprouts. Lovely.
Let’s dive in deeper.
Watch this YouTube video. They talk about chicken nuggets, but this potentially applies to a lot of industrially made crispy chicken varieties.
What do they talk about? They talk about the chicken nuggets (and potentially many other crispy chicken varieties) containing very little actual chicken meat and much more fat, along with epithelium, bone, nerve, and connective tissue. There is a study published in the American Journal of Medicine that proves all that’s been said. (1)
Many of the chicken’s inedible parts do NOT go to waste. We eat them in a form of a chicken nugget or a crispy chicken steak. And we love it.
If we only take the calories of (some) industrial fried and prepackaged chicken varieties out there (remember, there’s very little chicken in a lot of them!) – we are roughly talking about 440 kcal per item (one steak, or 10 nuggets).
Additionally, let’s look at this video, where Jamie Oliver demonstrates to the children and to us, that we would eat anything, as long as it looks attractive and we are hungry:
When buying frozen prepackaged chicken meat (nuggets, steaks, etc..) look at the ingredients! Look for the words: whole white meat – it’s the actual chicken meat.
OK, next – croutons. These croutons are highly processed. They don’t contain the classic ingredients of white bread, which are: all purpose flour, sugar, water and salt. No, no, these babies contain a lot more. For starters, many of their ingredients are required to increase the shelf life of the product, and improve the flavor that disappears when food is not fresh. If we decide to buy seasoned croutons, ingredients wise – we’re in for a treat. I’m talking: fructose – glucose syrup, azocarbonamide (that’s a popular dough conditioner), artificial flavors, corn syrup, maltodextrin, calcium propionate (preservative that inhibits mold and bacterial growth). They probably contain quite a few more ingredients, but anyway… Calorie wise – if we use 20 g in the salad, we’re adding 81 kcal (this according to caloricounter.com).
Next on the line are the toppings. Let’s look at both – the yogurt topping and the mayo topping. The basic ingredients of mayonnaise are: egg yolk, vinegar, oil and lemon juice. Not too bad, right? Mayonnaise by itself is actually very healthy, it’s filled with fats, but not saturated ones. A tablespoon of mayonnaise has 90 calories. If we eat the salad in a restaurant, I can guarantee, that the topping has more than 90 calories. You can bet on it.
“Southern-Style” Mayonnaise via photopin (license)
You say – ok, but what about the yogurt topping? That one can’t be bad, right? Well, it depends what kind of yogurt topping we use. If we use commercial and not organic yogurt, then what we put on our salads are mostly artificial food colorings, sugar substitutes (fructose – glucose syrup), preservatives, carrageenan, etc. How many calories? A tablespoon of yogurt dressing is about 25 kcal.
Image Author: Ned Jelyazkov (via Wikimedia commons)
For the rest of the salad – we have: rocket (one cup – 1 kcal), tomato (one medium – 16 kcal), some sweetcorn (one cup – 85 kcal), red onions (one small – 5 kcal) and soya sprouts (one cup – 31 kcal). These ingredients (the vegetables and the tomato) belong to the healthy side of things. (Unless I mention pesticides. So to get to the main point – the beautiful salad with shiny white dressing is not a good choice).
Total calories (with the yogurt dressing): min. 684 kcal.
Total calories (with the mayo dressing): min. 749 kcal.
Surprised? Not surprised?
Do you know how many calories a Big Mac has? One sandwich has 563 calories.
Image Author: Evan-Amos (via Wikimiedia Commons)
So, it’s very important to know what kind of salad we eat. If we eat salad with fried meat and mayo or even industrial yogurt topping, then we are not giving our bodies any break.
Let’s look at some great healthier versions of our salad. How can we change it to make it tasty and nutritious?
Let’s modify our salad!
So, what is a healthy version of a fried chicken?
I love chicken, and man – fried chicken is so freakin’ tasty, I mean – the moist, all that grease (I’m not kidding), the crispiness, sigh!
But, we gotta eat healthy, so what’s the best choice that’s equally tasty, yet much healthier – I’d say grilled chicken. I love chicken in 1001 ways, so I have no problems with this choice. Do you need more choices? Try: baked chicken (you can soak it in herbs or spices) or cooked chicken. If you’re vegetarian or vegan, try substituting chicken with high protein legumes (lentils, black beans).
Not good enough? It has to be a fried chicken?
I found this amazing oven “fried” chicken recipe on You Tube.
Ok, so we’ve found a healthier version of the crispy chicken, let’s move on to the croutons. The healthiest way to go is to make our own. How do we do that? Well, it’s fairly simple: Buy a whole grain bread (a healthy choice), cut a slice of that bread into cubes (or croutons), and put it in the oven (200 degrees for 30 minutes).
When buying bread beware! On the package it may say that it’s whole grain, yet you might be buying a bread made of an enriched white flour. Take a look at the ingredients, a whole grain bread’s nutritional value usually is:
- Fiber: 2-4 g (per serving);
- Hydrogenated oil (trans fat): 0g
(although, by law, at least in the States and Canada, if a product contains less than 0.5g and 0.2g of trans fats per serving, respectively, they are allowed to list 0g on the package. Mandatory labelling of trans-fat content (including amount) is not currently implemented in any of the WHO European Member States. Regulation (EC) No. 1169/2011 requests that ‘fully’ or ‘partly’ hydrogenated oil be indicated in the ingredients list, together with the specific vegetable origin of the oil or fat. For pre-packaged foods, consumers can determine from the ingredient list whether partially hydrogenated oils have been used to manufacture the products. However, the amount of trans fat present in the product cannot be assumed by this information and trans fat does not appear in the mandatory nutrition declaration. In this sense consumers are not provided with information on levels of trans-fats content in products.) (2);
- Sodium: < 200 mg per slice;
- Sugar and Sweeteners: 0-4 g
- Preservatives: none (ideally) (3).
But what happens when there are no ingredient lists or stamps? Well – then we resort to believing what our eyes see. We should check to see that we can notice actual grains or pieces of grain and not just on top of the bread.
So, when it comes to croutons, it’s a bit tricky, as the the pre-packed always contain more calories and of course preservatives (to extend their shelf life), and if you make them at home, it’ll take 30 minutes. The lesser of two evils? Your choice. You could always prepare them the night before.
If we choose yogurt topping, it’s best to get Greek or organic plain yogurt. Both are healthy, and here is the difference between the two:
If you’re planning to lose weight, but love salad toppings, Greek yogurt is an ideal substitute for mayo. Tired of Greek yogurt? Other great choices are:
- olive oil,
- low-fat cottage cheese,
- mashed avocado,
- classic mustard,
- nayonnaise – if you like soy, this is a vegan alternative to mayonnaise, and
- aioli – a great way to substitute mayonnaise. It is made of olive oil, garlic and sometimes an egg. Add some tofu, lemon juice, salt and pepper, throw everything in a blender and voila! – A light and healthy substitute for mayo.
Say we used these ingredients: grilled chicken (5oz. or 100g – 239kcal), whole grain home made (the night before) croutons (2 tablespoons or 30g or 1oz – 69kcal), greek yogurt (100g or 3.5oz. – 53kcal), rocket (one cup – 1 kcal), tomato (one medium – 16 kcal), some sweetcorn (one cup – 85 kcal), red onions (one small – 5 kcal) and soya sprouts (one cup – 31 kcal). The total amount of calories for this salad is: 499kcal.
So, basically we have the same salad, only healthier and tastier! Bon appétit!
Let’s look at few recipes of healthy salads to make at home and take with us at work (I’ll give you 5 great choices):
- Quinoa salad with veggies and oranges.
Why is quinoa so popular? Quinoa is a rich source of protein (100g of raw quinoa contains 20% of protein or higher). Did you know that it is closely related to species such as beetroot, spinach and amaranth? It’s true, what we eat is actually the seeds. You can eat the leaves, too, but they are commercially rarely available. I will write more about this amazing plant in another post.
Our salad (I make this one at home, it’s a modified recipe, which is a combination of more than 3 other recipes, so feel free to change the vegies and seasonings to suite your taste):
Servings: ~ 3
For the veggie mix with oranges
- 1 red bell pepper cubed
- 1 yellow bell pepper cubed
- 1 cup cherry tomatoes, cut them in halves
- 2 carrots cut in cubes
- 1 red onion chopped
- 1 large orange cut in smaller wedges
- 2 tablespoons sunflower seeds
- ¼ teaspoon salt
- 2 tablespoon olive oil
- ½ teaspoon garlic powder
For the quinoa
- ½ tablespoon olive oil
- ½ cup quinoa
- 1 cup water or chicken stock (your choice)
- a pinch of salt
- 2 tablespoons freshly squeezed lemon juice
- 2 tablespoons olive oil
- 2 tablespoons chopped fresh rosemary
- ½ tablespoon dried coriander
- Cook the quinoa as ordered on the package. The quinoa absorbs water and becomes fluffy. It doubles after it’s cooked, so you’re gonna get 1 cup of cooked quinoa. Set aside.
- In a large bowl combine all the veggies + the orange wedges (the bell peppers, the cherry tomatoes, the carrots and the onion). Add the sunflower seeds, the garlic powder, salt and the olive oil. Mix well.
- Now prepare the dressing: Combine all ingredients together (the lemon juice, the olive oil, the chopped fresh rosemary and the dried coriander). Mix very fast and very well for 30 seconds.
- Now combine the quinoa with the veggies and the orange wedges. Mix well. Add the dressing. Again, mix well.
- If you want, you can add a little parmesan (1 tablespoon = 22.8 kcal) or any cheese you want (not too much, though!) and garnish with some rosemary.
You can eat it at home or take it at work. It’s an amazing, healthy meal.
426.6 kcal (with chicken stock)
397.8 kcal (with water)
The nutritional info is given for the chicken stock variant. For the salad, where the quinoa is cooked in water, total fat is lower and some nutrition facts are different.
Total Fat 27.7 g (daily recommendation: 70g, this is 40% of daily recommendation)
Saturated Fat 3.5 g (daily recommendation: 24g; this is 14.5% of daily recommendation)
Polyunsaturated Fat 5.3 g
Monounsaturated Fat 16.4 g
Cholesterol 2.4 mg (ideal daily dose: 300 mg, for people with high cholesterol: 200mg, this is 0.8% of normal daily dose)
Sodium 400.6 mg (ideal dose for adults: 1500mg/day, so this is ~27% of daily dose), Potassium 760.8 mg (ideal dose for everyone >14 age is 4700mg/day, this is 16% of daily dose)
Total Carbohydrate 38.4 g (daily recommendation: 310g, this is ~12% of daily recommendation)
Dietary Fiber 8.2 g (daily recommendation is 25-30g, this is ~27%-33% of daily recommendation)
Sugars 11.8 g (daily recommendation is 90g, this is 13% of daily recommendation)
Protein 9.8 g (daily recommendation is 50g, this is ~20% of daily recommendation)
Vitamin A 138.5 %, Vitamin B12 0.0 %, Vitamin B6 16.1 %, Vitamin C 127.1 %, Vitamin D 0.0 %, Vitamin E 41.2 %, Calcium 8.7 %, Copper 19.8 %, Folate 20.2 %, Iron 10.4 %, Magnesium 20.2 %, Manganese 33.7 %, Niacin (Vit.B3) 17.8 %, Pantothenic Acid (Vit.B5) 10.1 %, Phosphorus 25.2 %, Riboflavin (Vit.B2) 12.5 %, Selenium 16.8 %, Thiamin (Vit.B1) 12.8 %, Zinc 9.6 %
2. Tuna salad with veggies, lettuce, spinach and avocado
This salad is NOT meant for pregnant women, as tuna fish contains mercury. Tuna salad is quite calorie danced, but it contains some healthy Omega – 3 – fatty acids. I add it to my list of salads, because I know too many people (myself included), who adore tuna fish. I love, no, no, I LOVE tuna. Rio Mare is my favorite.
Serving for 2-3 people.
- 1 cup baby spinach
- 1 cup lettuce
- 1 can tuna (in my case, a Rio Mare tuna)
- 1 avocado chopped
- 1 yellow bell pepper chopped
- 1 cup cherry tomatoes cut in halves
- 1 oz (30 g) green olives (I adore black ones)
- 1 tablespoon capers
- 1 teaspoon ground black pepper
- a pinch of salt
- light balsamic vinegar (optional)
- Mix the veggies together
- Add the avocado and mix
- Add the tuna and olives and capers
- Add the seasonings and if you want the vinegar
Serve with whole grain bread (2 slices max).
248.1 kcal (Rio Mare tuna in olive oil), with 2 slices of whole grain bread: 392.1 kcal
236.4 kcal (Rio Mare tuna in water), with 2 slices of whole grain bread: 380.4 kcal
The nutritional info is given for the Rio Mare tuna in olive oil variant. For the salad, where the tuna is canned in water, total fat is lower and some other nutrition facts are different.
Total Fat 20.6 g (~29.5%)
Saturated Fat 3 g (12.5%)
Polyunsaturated Fat 1.9 g
Monounsaturated Fat 6.6 g
Cholesterol 00.0 mg (0%)
Sodium 512.3 mg (34%) – Reduce the amount of capers (to half a tablespoon) and olives to reduce the amount of sodium.
Potassium 468.2 mg (6.4%)
Total Carbohydrate 10.8 g (5%)
Dietary Fiber 5.1 g (~17% – 20.5%)
Sugars 2.2 g (~2.5%)
Protein 7.8 g (15.6%)
Vitamin A 39.6 %, Vitamin B12 0.0 %, Vitamin B6 7.0 %, Vitamin C 36.2 %, Vitamin D 0.0 %, Vitamin E 5.5 %, Calcium 4.6 %, Copper 5.4 %, Folate 16.5 %, Iron 5.5 %, Magnesium 7.4 %, Manganese 9.6 %, Niacin (Vit.B3) 8.4 %, Pantothenic Acid (Vit.B5) 7.3 %, Phosphorus 3.4 %, Riboflavin (Vit.B2) 5.3 %, Selenium 0.6 %, Thiamin (Vit.B1) 3.3 %, Zinc 2.4 %
3. Grilled shrimp salad with avocado, lettuce and veggies
This salad is quite light and of course – tasty!
Serving for 2-3 people.
- ½ lb (225g) or 16 large shrimp, raw, peeled, deveined
- 2 cups Romaine Lettuce chopped
- 2 cups baby spinach
- 1 green bell pepper chopped
- 1 green long pepper (Hungarian wax pepper) chopped
Image author: Jeff Kwapil (via Wikimedia Commons)
- 1 avocado chopped
- 1 scallion chopped
- 1 medium zucchini cubed
- 2 cloves garlic, chopped
- 2 tablespoons olive oil
- salt and pepper to taste
- 2 tablespoons lemon juice freshly squeezed
- Preheat oven to 220°C (or 425F). Apply some olive oil to a baking sheet.
- Squeeze some lemon juice over the zucchini cubes and toss them on the baking sheet in the oven. Bake them for 15 minutes, then open the oven, mix them, toss them turn them and bake for 3-4 minutes more. When done, set aside.
- In a bowl combine the lettuce, spinach, the chopped bell pepper, the wax pepper, the chopped scallion and the garlic cloves. Mix well. Set aside.
- Sprinkle the chopped avocado with some lemon juice and add it to the bowl.
- Sauté shrimp in a skillet, that is sprinkled (or greased) with an olive oil. Do this over medium heat for a minute or two per side (or until pink – which usually means 1-2 minutes). Sprinkle shrimp with some lemon juice, add salt and pepper to taste and if desired a little chopped garlic.
- Add the warm shrimp to the salad. If desired a tablespoon of olive oil or balsamic vinegar.
240.1 kcal without 2 slices of whole grain bread
383.4 kcal with 2 slices of whole grain bread
Total Fat 17.3 g (~25%)
Saturated Fat 2.4 g (10%)
Polyunsaturated Fat 1.1 g
Monounsaturated Fat 6.7 g
Cholesterol 56.7 mg (~19%)
Sodium 141.8 mg (9.5%)
Potassium 604.2 mg (8%)
Total Carbohydrate 14.1 g (4.5%)
Dietary Fiber 6.5 g (~22% – 26%)
Sugars 3.0 g (3.3%)
Protein 11.0 g (22%)
Vitamin A 73.4 %, Vitamin B12 7.2 %, Vitamin B6 13.3 %, Vitamin C 49.4 %, Vitamin D 14.2 %, Vitamin E 13.3 %, Calcium 8.1 %, Copper 13.4 %, Folate 26.6 %, Iron 15.9 %, Magnesium 11.4 %, Manganese 23.9 %, Niacin (Vit.B3) 11.8 %, Pantothenic Acid (Vit.B5) 9.6 %, Phosphorus 14.8 %, Riboflavin (Vit.B2) 8.8 %, Selenium 21.5 %, Thiamin (Vit.B1) 7.6 %, Zinc 6.5 %
4. Chickpeas salad with veggies and black&white sesame
This is for the chickpea lovers. Personally, I am not crazy about chickpeas, unless it’s baked, but this is what many people like, so here goes:
Serving for 3 people.
- 1 can (14 oz. or 400 g) chickpeas
- 1 red bell pepper chopped
- 1 green long pepper (Hungarian wax pepper) chopped
- 1 medium cucumber cubed
- 2 medium tomatoes cubed
- 1 tablespoon black sesame
- 1 tablespoon white sesame
- 1 garlic clove chopped
- salt and pepper to taste
- 2 tablespoon sesame oil
- 1 tablespoon freshly grated ginger
- 2 tablespoon light balsamic vinegar (optional)
- Combine all veggies together
- Add the chickpea from the can
- Add the black and white sesame
- Add the salt and pepper
- In a mixing bowl combine the sesame oil, the grated ginger and the vinegar. Mix very fast until the mixture is uniform or homogenous or smooth…
- Add the smooth dressing to the salad, mix well and you’re ready to go.
Total Fat 14.0 g (20%)
Saturated Fat 1.9 g (~8%)
Polyunsaturated Fat 5.9 g
Monounsaturated Fat 5.1 g
Cholesterol 0.0 mg
Sodium 463.8 mg (~31%)
Potassium 570.0 mg (12%)
Total Carbohydrate 40.3 g (13%)
Dietary Fiber 8.3 g (~28% – 33%)
Sugars 1.5 g (~1.7%)
Protein 9.1 g (18%)
Vitamin A 19.7 %, Vitamin B12 0.0 %, Vitamin B6 39.7 %, Vitamin C 78.9 %, Vitamin D 0.0 %, Vitamin E 4.4 %, Calcium 11.9 %, Copper 29.7 %, Folate 29.3 %, Iron 18.3 %, Magnesium 19.5 %, Manganese 55.6 %, Niacin (Vit.B3) 5.1 %, Pantothenic Acid (Vit.B5) 7.8 %, Phosphorus 19.4 %, Riboflavin (Vit.B2) 6.9 %, Selenium 6.6 %, Thiamin (Vit.B1) 10.5 %, Zinc 13.9 %
5. Whole grain pasta salad
As someone who adores Mediterranean food, I cannot not mention pasta salad. When people hear me say I love pasta, they look at me with a weird look in their eyes (gasp! Calories!), but they are full of understanding (sigh! Tasty!).
Whole grain pasta in this case is a healthy choice.
Serving for 3 people.
- 1 lbs (450 g or 25 small strands) asparagus, trimmed and cut into 0.5 inches (~1.5 cm) pieces
- 1 red onion
- 1 large zucchini
- 5 lbs (200 grams) champignon mushrooms
- 1 cup carrots chopped
- salt and pepper to taste
- 2 tablespoons olive oil
- 1 tablespoon parmesan if desired
- 300 g whole grain pasta
- In a pan add a tablespoon of olive oil and sauté the zucchini, carrots and onion. Set aside.
- In olive oil (1 tablespoon) sauté the asparagus and add the mushrooms. Cook for few (3-5 minutes) and add the zucchini, carrots and onion. Add some salt and pepper. Mix well. Set aside.
- Cook pasta al dente. Drain it and add the veggies. Toss and mix, then serve on a dish.
- Sprinkle with parmesan if you wish and garnish with fresh basil.
370.6 kcal without the parmesan
378.2 kcal with the parmesan
The nutritional info is given for the salad with parmesan. For the salad, without added parmesan, total fat is lower and some nutrition facts are different.
Total Fat 11.3 g (16%)
Saturated Fat 1.6 g (~7%)
Polyunsaturated Fat 0.9 g
Monounsaturated Fat 6.8 g
Cholesterol 1.3 mg (0.4%)
Sodium 349.3 mg (23%)
Potassium 684.0 mg (14.5%)
Total Carbohydrate 59.0 g (19%)
Dietary Fiber 14.7 g (~49% – ~59%)
Sugars 5.8 g (~6.5%)
Protein 14.7 g (~30%)
Vitamin A 138.6 %, Vitamin B12 0.4 %, Vitamin B6 13.8 %, Vitamin C 34.5 %, Vitamin D 0.0 %, Vitamin E 17.2 %, Calcium 7.2 %, Copper 14.5 %, Folate 38.6 %, Iron 16.0 %, Magnesium 26.9 %, Manganese 25.9 %, Niacin (Vit.B3) 10.3 %, Pantothenic Acid (Vit.B5) 4.2 %, Phosphorus 27.7 %, Riboflavin (Vit.B2) 12.0 %, Selenium 4.3 %, Thiamin (Vit.B1) 14.2 %, Zinc 5.5 %
Any recipe can be modified to be healthier. It’s essential that we must love what we eat. If unhealthy and greasy – modify it and make it healthy. That version might take time to get used to (or not), but it’s better for our bodies and minds.
Bon appétit! See you next time.
- R.D. deShazo, et al.: The Autopsy of Chicken Nuggets Reads “Chicken Little”. The American Journal of Medicine.2013. 126 (11): 1018 – 1019. Online Source: http://www.amjmed.com/article/S0002-9343(13)00396-3/fulltext (03.02.2017)
- Eliminating Trans Fats in Europe: A Policy Brief. WHO (World Health Organization), Regional Office for Europe. 2015. Online Source: http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0010/288442/Eliminating-trans-fats-in-Europe-A-policy-brief.pdf?ua=1 (03.02.2017)
- WebMD. The Best Bread: Tips for Buying Breads. How to decipher labels and choose the healthiest bread. Online Source: http://www.webmd.com/food-recipes/features/the_best_bread_tips_for_buying_breads#3 (03.02.2017)